Liaoning, a province in northeast China slightly smaller than Nepal, borders on North Korea to the east, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to the northwest, Jilin Province to the north, and Hebei Province to the southwest. It is the base for the country’s heavy industry, as well as being a major producer of agricultural products. It is regarded, together with Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces, as the country’s granary.

Liaoning Province is in the southern part of northeast China. Bounded by the Yellow and Bo Hai seas in the south, with a coastline 2,187 kilometers (1,359 miles) long, Liaoning covers a total area of 145,900 square kilometers: slightly smaller than Nepal. It is surrounded by Jilin and Hebei provinces, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and North Korea. The Liao River, the principal waterway of the province, flows through the middle of Liaoning from north to south. The Yalu River on the eastern fringe forms the boundary between China and North Korea. The Liaodong Peninsula juts out between the Yellow and Bo Hai seas from the landmass. Liaoning has a zigzag coast and many rocky islands and fine natural harbors. It had an estimated population of 42.98 million in 2007. Ethnic groups living there include Man, Mongolians, Koreans, and Xibo.

Liaoning has a temperate continental monsoonal climate, with hot, rainy summers; long, cold winters with little snow; and short, windy springs. It has an average annual temperature of 6°–11° C (43°–53° F), a frost-free period of 130–180 days, and a mean annual precipitation of 400–1,000 millimeters (15–39 inches), which decreases notably from southeast to northwest.

Liaoning grows sorghum, maize, rice, and soybeans and the cash crops of cotton, tobacco, and peanuts. It is also the major grower of tussah, or wild, silk in China. The apples of southern Liaoning and the pears of western Liaoning are known throughout China. The province is a rich source of ginseng and pilose antler, valuable ingredients for traditional Chinese medicines. The fishery industry is developed along the coast.

Liaoning contains rich mineral resources, especially iron ore and coal. Fushun and Fuxin, popularly called the “coal capital” and the “coal sea,” produce top-quality coal at the largest opencast mining centers in China. With a well-grounded heavy industry, Liaoning is one of China’s major industrial bases. It leads the country in the production of iron and steel, aluminum, sulfuric acid, soda ash, heavy machinery, magnesia, and talcum. With its railway mileage exceeding 4,000 kilometers (2,485 miles) of tracks, Liaoning has the densest network of rail lines in the country.

Shenyang, the provincial capital, is the largest city of northeast China, with an estimated 2007 population of 7.1 million. It is one of China’s economic, communications, and cultural centers. Shenyang is known throughout China for its machine-building industry.

Dalian, the most famous city in Liaoning, lies at the southern tip of the Liaodong Peninsula. One of the most beautiful cities in China, it is a tourist paradise, with European-style architecture framing its skyline and miles of beaches along its oceanfront.

Further Reading

China Handbook Editorial Committee. (1992). Geography, China handbook series. (Liang Liangxing, Trans.). Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.

Hsieh Chiao-min & Max Lu (Eds.). (2001). Changing China: A geographical appraisal. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Kirk, M. (Ed.). (2009). China by numbers 2009. Hong Kong: China Economic Review Publishing.

Source: Bai, Di. (2009). Liaoning Province. In Linsun Cheng, et al. (Eds.), Berkshire Encyclopedia of China, pp. 1324–1325. Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing.

Liaoning Province (Liáo níng Sh?ng ???)|Liáo níng Sh?ng ??? (Liaoning Province)

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