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Encyclopedia of Sustainability

New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale

Abstract: The New Ecological Paradigm scale is a measure of endorsement of a “pro-ecological” world view. It is used extensively in environmental education, outdoor recreation, and other realms where differences in behavior or attitudes are believed to be explained by underlying values, a world view, or a paradigm. The scale is constructed from individual responses

By |2024-03-15T10:30:58-04:00March 15th, 2024|Encyclopedia of Sustainability|0 Comments

Sustainability Values

Abstract: Conceptualizations of human values play a central role in the theory and practice of sustainability. How humans value the natural environment is central to how resources are distributed. A values typology, an arrangement of values by type, shows how humans express worth. Theories of sustainability must account for values differences, their measurement, and a system

Sustainability Theory

Abstract: Theories of sustainability attempt to prioritize and integrate social responses to environmental and cultural problems. An economic model looks to sustain natural and financial capital; an ecological model looks to biological diversity and ecological integrity; a political model looks to social systems that realize human dignity. Religion has entered the debate with symbolic, critical,

Biosphere Reserves

Abstract: UNESCO Biosphere Reserves were first established under the Man and Biosphere Programme of UNESCO in the 1970s. Their mandate has expanded beyond conservation to include sustainable development and local capacity enhancement. As institutions under UNESCO, they also work on “building peace” by seeking to reconcile relations between peoples, and between people and the natural

Railways and Sustainability

Abstract: Railways for passengers and freight offer strategic advantages in terms of energy efficiency and the ease of adaptation to electric mobility. The relatively small infrastructure footprint of modern rail also facilitates integration into densely developed spaces like city centers. These advantages and other benefits—such as the economic revival of regions left behind by globalization—fit well

Environmental Justice

Abstract: While the term environmental justice has different nuances of meaning for activists, academics, and politicians, most agree that it encompasses the need for a healthy environment for all with the same degree of protection from environmental risks and with equal access to environmental goods. This is in line with sustainability goals to fulfill the

Bitcoin and Blockchains (Advance Article)

Abstract: While many new technologies carry the promise of creating a better world, they often have unintended consequences. The promise of blockchains is trust-minimizing and immutable peer-to-peer interactions, but early blockchain platforms have faced a great deal of skepticism regarding their environmental sustainability, and continue to cast their shadow over the technology’s potential today. Citation:

By |2024-03-04T11:13:48-05:00October 9th, 2020|Encyclopedia of Sustainability|0 Comments

Impact Investing (Advance Article)

Abstract: The term “impact investing” describes the work of companies, organizations, and funds seeking to achieve measurable social and environmental gains while also generating financial returns. This sector has struggled with how to measure—quantitatively and qualitatively—the impact of investments. The past decade has witnessed the emergence of formal institutions that have achieved some success in

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