How to Help a Tree in Distress

Karin Vaneker, a writer and activist in the Netherlands, has been helping me by tackling subjects that haven’t yet attracted much scholarly research for the second edition of the Encyclopedia of Sustainability. She’s written, for example, on including composting and community gardens - important, relevant, and yet somehow a little too close to home for

By |2022-01-21T11:49:51-05:00January 21st, 2022|Berkshire Blog, Karen's Letter|0 Comments

Biosphere Reserves

Abstract: UNESCO Biosphere Reserves were first established under the Man and Biosphere Programme of UNESCO in the 1970s. Their mandate has expanded beyond conservation to include sustainable development and local capacity enhancement. As institutions under UNESCO, they also work on “building peace” by seeking to reconcile relations between peoples, and between people and the natural

Cuisine of Macau

Abstract: The cooking of the Macanese, an ethnic group originating in Macau, represents one of the earliest examples of creole cooking. What can be seen on the dining plates of these people reflects history and culture dating back to the seafaring discoveries of the Portuguese. Macanese cuisine demonstrates how Portuguese culinary traditions have been interpreted


Abstract: First introduced into China by the Japanese in the 1930s, crayfish became popular in the Nanjing area in the early 1990s as part of a dish prepared with Sichuan pepper and spices. China is now the top consumer and producer of crayfish, which has gained acclaim as a luxury item prepared in a variety

By |2021-01-25T02:03:43-05:00January 25th, 2021|Advance Articles, Encyclopedia of Chinese Cuisines|0 Comments


Abstract: Non-rennet cheeses have existed in China for almost two millennia. Such cheeses reflect the influence of the foodways of pastoralists from the steppes, especially Persians and Turks. Premodern Chinese adopted the milking practices of these peoples and incorporated cheese and other dairy products into their diets. These ancient cheese-making practices survive nowadays in Yunnan

By |2021-01-25T01:38:50-05:00January 25th, 2021|Advance Articles, Encyclopedia of Chinese Cuisines|0 Comments

Noodles, Lanzhou

Abstract: Lanzhou, the capital of Gansu Province, is home to one of China’s best-known noodle dishes: Lanzhou lamian. Created over a century ago, these hand-pulled beef noodles are a simple yet delicious regional specialty emblematic of both the city itself and the Hui Muslim people of the northwest. Lanzhou lamian have steadily acquired popularity and

By |2021-01-25T00:35:51-05:00January 23rd, 2021|Advance Articles, Encyclopedia of Chinese Cuisines|0 Comments

Milk and Dairy Products

Abstract: China has a long history of dairy production and consumption. Milk was appreciated for its culinary and medicinal uses, with successive dynasties expanding production and acquisition of pastoral animals. Now China is one of the world’s great dairy nations. Dairy was first commercially available in cities, but advances in packing and shipping have made

By |2021-01-22T12:35:29-05:00January 22nd, 2021|Advance Articles, Encyclopedia of Chinese Cuisines|0 Comments

Recipe Collecting Shípǔ 食谱

Abstract: In Chinese history, the practice of collecting recipes evolved along two parallel but interacting trends. The first placed food within a medical context in order to nourish the body and heal different ailments. The second was concerned with technical aspects as well as the aesthetic enjoyments of food. Beginning with twenty recipes found on

By |2021-01-17T23:01:12-05:00January 17th, 2021|Advance Articles, Encyclopedia of Chinese Cuisines|0 Comments

Tibetan Cuisine

Abstract: Variations in cuisine among the Tibetan minority of China are due in part to environmental diversity. Different ecologies yielded varied adaptive strategies of resource use (economies), and resulted in three main types of food production: pastoralism, agriculture, and a mixed economy with both kinds of production. These strategies in turn affect the type of

By |2021-01-17T21:55:08-05:00January 17th, 2021|Advance Articles, Encyclopedia of Chinese Cuisines|0 Comments

Industry in China

Abstract: China’s diverse industrial sector is the driving force of the nation’s post-1978 economic “miracle.” While conditions will change in the coming decades as nations in South and Southeast Asia and Africa with lower cost labor and land make inroads, China remains a vibrant manufacturing sector that must be credited with both the nation’s new-found

By |2021-01-13T12:08:43-05:00January 13th, 2021|Advance Articles, Encyclopedia of China|0 Comments


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